Chapter 8a: Converting SDL image to OpenGL texture (JEDI-SDL)

This is an SDL 1.2 chapter. SDL 1.2 is obsolete since it has been replaced by SDL 2.0. Unless you have good reasons to stay here you may prefer to go for the modern SDL 2.0 :-).

It is highly recommended that you read the previous Chapter 8. The code from last chapter was used and modified to show how the conversion works. However, I won’t explain twice everything already introduced in Chapter 8. Also I’d like to express here that NeHe Productions’ OpenGL tutorial 06 “Texture Mapping” and the translated (by Dominique Louis) Jedi-SDL file was inspiring me a lot for this chapter.

You need this software:

Software Version Source Description
OpenGL driver Usually your graphic card provides the corresponding OpenGL driver and you don’t have to do anything. And if so it is very likely that version 1.1 is fully supported. However if you are one of the few poor people whose graphic card doesn’t support OpenGL, check the graphic card’s manufacturer’s homepage for OpenGL drivers.

Now following the whole code at once as usual. As you will notice many lines are exactly the same as in Chapter 8.

This code will again draw a tetrahedron which is spinning, as known from Chapter 8. However, this time one face is textured with the “Free Pascal meets SDL” image known from Chapter 3. Now lets go through the code step by step.

The program is called “chap8a”. Additionally to the variables defined in the previous chapter there are two new variables. The SDL surface “picture” which will store the SDL image before converting it to an OpenGL texture. ogl_texture is an integer pointer variable (provided by the OpenGL Uitility Library (GLU), so pGLUINT) which is needed to reference to the OpenGL texture we will create from the SDL image.

The code shown here is discussed in detail in Chapter 8. In short the tetrahedron parameters are calculated, some important OpenGL scene settings are applied and finally the SDL video subsystem is intilized.

First we should load a simple BMP image to a SDL surface as known from Chapter 3. There are some limitations about the height and length of images if used as OpenGL textures. Their pixel height and pixel length has to be power of 2. So whatever image you use, its height and lengths should fulfill the following equation: f(n) = 2n. So appropriate values are: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048,… The height and length don’t have to be of the same size, so an image with height 64 px and width 32 px is perfectly acceptable. This means the image of Chapter 3 with height and length of 200 x 200 px is not acceptable. A new image with 256 x 256 dimensions is therefore provided now:

Free Pascal meets SDL images with 256x256 dimensions
Free Pascal meets SDL images with 256×256 dimensions

First the pointer “ogl_texture” gets some space. glGENTEXTURES(number of IDs, array of integer pointer) generates one or more OGL integer identifiers for textures. Anyway, we just have one texture, so we just need one texture identifier, therefore we request “1” and ogl_texture should point at it. If we need to identify the texture we just need to call ogl_texture from now on.

glBINDTEXTURE(target, texture) essentially creates a texture object of type: GL_TEXTURE_1D or GL_TEXTURE_2D. Usually textures in 2d and 3d games are two-dimensional, so GL_TEXTURE_2D is a good choice. Now it is clear, ogl_texture will be a 2d texture.

Briefly, glTEXIMAGE2D(target, mipmap level, internal image format, width, height, border, pixel format, pixel type, actual pixel data) creates the actual 2d texture. The target is GL_TEXTURE_2D again since we are looking for creating a 2d texture. The mipmap level should be set to 0 because we wouldn’t want to have a mipmap effect here. A higher number corresponds to the number’s mipmap level, anyway in the example for a number different from 0 there is no image at all finally. The internal image format is RGB because the image is a RGB image, anyway there is a large list of possibilities for this parameter, you should look it up in the internet if you’re interested. The width and height of the image in pixels is received from the SDL image. The border is off (values 0 and 1 are acceptable). The pixel format is RGB, too, so again SDL_RGB is the right choice here. The pixel explains how the pixel data is stored. The pixel data from the SDL image is stored as unsigned byte (GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE). Finally the pixel data pointer of the SDL image is needed. Essentially the SDL image is now transformed to an OGL texture!

Briefly, glTEXPARAMETERi(target, texture parameter, parameter value) allocates a certain value to a specific texture parameter. The possible parameters and values are OGL specific and won’t be treated here in more detail. Anyway, again we are concerned about our 2d texture, so the target is GL_TEXTURE_2D. The parameters to be set are GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER and GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER. They are used to define how to treat textures that have to be drawn to a smaller or larger scale. The routine used for this is specified by GL_LINEAR.

Since the SDL image isn’t needed anymore it can be omitted as known by SDL_FREESURFACE.

This part is completely described in Chapter 8. Nothing has changed for this part. In short, the viewport is set up so that the tetrahedron finally can be seen.

Now the REPEAT..UNTIL loop is entered which is delayed by 50 milliseconds by known SDL_DELAY. Each cycle the the scene gets rotated by 5 degrees around the y-axis by function glROTATEf. More details about this in Chapter 8.

The actual texturing of one of the four triangles of the tetrahedron is now described. Therefore 2d texturing has to be enabled by glENABLE(OGL capability). The capability we would like to enable is defined by GL_TEXTURE_2D.

Just as known from Chapter 8 the triangle mode is started by glBEGIN(geometric primitive type) with GL_TRIANGLES. Instead of a color we now define specific texture coordinates which should be allocated to specific vertices. glTEXCOORD2f(s coordinate, t coordinate) is used to define the coordinate of the texture we then allocate to a specific vertex. By the way, even though the official names of the texture coordinates are s and t, they can be considered as x and y values, which is more common for two-dimensional coordinate systems. The values for s and t are relative, so a value of 1 (= 100%) means the full width or height, independent of the actual width or height (32 x 32, 64 x 64, 128 x 256, …), a value of 2 (= 200%) then corresponds to two times the texture’s width or height. The coordinate (s, t) = (2, 2) is allocated to the vertex with the vertex coordinates (x, y, z) = (thh, 0.0, 0.0). Texture coordinate (0, 0) is allocated to vertex (thh, hh, 0.0). Texture coordinate (0, 2) is allocated to vertex (thh, hh, 0.5). Often this texturing process is compared to papering a wall, and indeed there are similarities. The vertex coordinates are exactly the same as for the first triangle in Chapter 8.

Finally the geometry definition and the texturing mode is finished by glEND and glDISABLE(OGL capability).

The remaining three areas of the triangle are kept as in Chapter 8. Finally the display buffer if swapped after each cycle and the REPEAT..UNTIL loop stopped if a key is pressed in the console.

Last but not least everything has to be free’s and closed as known. Anyway, the texture has to free’d by glDELETETEXTURES(number of textures, texture pointer). Then the pointer can be disposed as known and SDL can be quit.

Again, if you want to learn OpenGL and its capabilities to a more advaced extend you need to read more professional tutorials related to pure OpenGL programming. As a starting point I’d like to mention NeHe Productions’ OpenGL tutorials again, because they are professional and provide example code for JEDI-SDL for several lessons. 🙂

This file contains the source code: chap8a.pas (right click and “save as”)
This file is the executable: chap8a.exe (right click and “save as”)

The final result should look and behave like this: A tetrahedron consisting of three different coloured areas (cyan, magenta and white) and one textured area is spinning slowly around itself. When pressing a key in the console the show quits.

Result of JEDI-SDL Chapter 8a

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